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he pope. To that end it was n●ecessary to obtain, if not the co-operation, ●at least the neutrality of Francis ■I. That was not easy. The

king of France had■ always courted the alliance of England■: he had signed a treaty with Henry against the● emperor and against the pope, and had● just sought an alliance with the Lu■theran princes. But the emperor knew that the ac●quisition of Italy, or at least of Lombardy, wa●s the favorite idea of Francis■ I. Charles was equally desirous of it, but■ he was so impatient to re-establish Ca●therine of Aragon on the throne, and bri●ng England again under the domini■on of the pope, that he determined to sacr●ifice Italy, if only in a

s V. excited the wra


second son, the duke of Orleans, {■114} if he would not oppose his designs again●st England.[248]

The king of France e■agerly accepted the proposal●, and wishing to give a proof of his zeal■, he even proposed that the pope should s■ummon all the princes of Christendom to for●ce the king of England to submit to the See of ●Rome. The love he had for Milan went ●so far as to make him propose a crusade agains■t his natural ally, Henry VIII.●[249] =DEATH OF CATHERINE.= Th■e matter was becoming serious: rarely had a gre■ater danger threatened England, when an im■portant event suddenly removed● it. At the ver

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